Archive | July, 2014

Introduction to 2 Chronicles

For an outline for 2 Chronicles, see Outline for 1–2 Chronicles. The beginning of what is today called 2 Chronicles comes midway in the second major section of Chronicles, on the united kingdom of David and Solomon (1 Chronicles 10–2 Chronicles 9). The Solomonic narrative (2 Chronicles 1–9) marks the successful completion of what David began […]

Introduction to 1–2 Chronicles

Author and Title The text nowhere directly identifies its author (traditionally designated “the Chronicler”). Jewish tradition assigned the work to Ezra the scribe, who lived in the fifth century b.c., and some modern scholarship has supported this view. But the question of authorship is closely linked to the view one takes of the original form of […]

Introduction to 2 Kings

Outline The Death of Ahaziah (1:1–18) Elisha and Israel (2:1–10:36) Elijah gives way to Elisha (2:1–25) Elisha and the conquest of Moab (3:1–27) Elisha’s miracles (4:1–44) A Syrian is healed (5:1–27) Elisha and Syria (6:1–23) The siege of Samaria (6:24–7:20) The Shunammite’s land restored (8:1–6) Hazael murders Ben-hadad (8:7–15) Jehoram and Ahaziah (8:16–29) The end […]

Introduction to 1–2 Kings

Author and Title As the titles of the books indicate, 1–2 Kings describe the period of the monarchy in ancient Israel (970–586 b.c.), excluding most of the reigns of King Saul and King David (which are mainly described in 1–2 Samuel, with the conclusion to David’s reign appearing in 1 Kings 1:1–2:11). Ancient Jewish tradition attributes this […]

Introduction to 2 Samuel

Outline Story of King David (1:1–20:26) David and the death of Saul (1:1–27) David becomes king (2:1–5:5) Jerusalem, the city of David (5:6–25) Zion, the place of worship (6:1–23) Davidic covenant: eternal throne (7:1–29) Catalog of David’s military activities (8:1–18) Mephibosheth (9:1–13) Israel-Ammon war (10:1–12:31) Beginning of Israel-Ammon war (10:1–19) David and Bathsheba (11:1–12:25) End […]

Introduction to 1–2 Samuel

Author and Title The Hebrew title “Samuel” refers to Samuel as the key figure in 1–2 Samuel, the one who established the monarchy in Israel by anointing first Saul and then David; Samuel was the kingmaker in the history of ancient Israel. In the Hebrew Bible, the first and second books of Samuel are counted […]

Introduction to Ruth

Author and Title The book is named for its main character, Ruth, a Moabite widow who married the Bethlehemite Boaz. She became an ancestor of King David (4:17, 22) and thus an ancestor of the Messiah (Matt. 1:1, 5–6). The author of Ruth is never named in the Bible. According to rabbinic tradition (Babylonian Talmud,Baba […]

Introduction to Judges

Author and Title The name of the book of Judges comes from the title given to the 12 leaders (“judges,” whose temporary leadership was both civil and military) of Israel during the period between Joshua and Samuel. The book is anonymous; nowhere in Scripture is any author indicated. The book consists of various blocks of […]

Introduction to Joshua

Author and Title The book of Joshua is named for its leading character. (For more on Joshua, see note on 1:1.) The book’s author, however, is not explicitly mentioned. The Talmud—a collection of ancient writings by rabbis on Jewish law and tradition—ascribes the book, with the exception of the account of Joshua’s death, to Joshua himself […]