c. 740–732 b.c.
As the Assyrian Empire expanded westward, Syria and Israel sought to compel Judah and the other nearby states to form an anti-Assyrian alliance. Judah refused, leading Syria, Israel, and perhaps Edom and Philistia to attack Judah (2 Kings 15:29–37; 2 Chron. 28:1–19). Isaiah assured Ahaz that he needed only trust in God, who would call upon Assyria to deal with Syria and Israel.